A joint Fermilab/SLAC publication
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Cosmic inflation

Cosmic inflation refers to a period of rapid, accelerated expansion that scientists think took place about 14 billion years ago.

Illustration of  Wave-particle duality, person on beach under wave

Wave-particle duality

The concept of wave-particle duality ascribes two seemingly contradictory traits to a single object.

Illustration of Quantum Entanglement

Quantum entanglement

Through ‘spooky action at a distance,’ the properties of two systems remain correlated even after they are separated.

Illustration of Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations

Baryonic acoustic oscillations

Scientists have found a way to study sound waves from the early universe to learn more about its history and contents. 

Neutrinoless double beta decay

Neutrinoless double beta decay

The observation of neutrinoless double beta decay would suggest that, by itself, the Standard Model Higgs cannot give mass to neutrinos.

Illustration of force carriers

Force carriers

Particles communicate with one another through force carriers.

Illustration of 5 spools of thread and thimble

Unification of forces

What if all of nature’s forces can be woven together into one comprehensive force?

Illustration of beach with surf board, life vest, and person surfing on large blue wave in background

Plasma acceleration

Like surfers on huge ocean waves, electrons can ride waves of plasma to very high energies.

Illustration of 3D glasses in space with ballerinas spinning in red and blue lenses


Objects as large as a planet or as small as a photon can have the property of spin. Spin is also the reason we can watch movies in 3D.

Illustration of "spectroscopy" (red and blue)


Spectroscopy is a technique that astronomers use to measure and analyze the hundreds of colors contained in the light emitted by stars, galaxies and other celestial objects.