A joint Fermilab/SLAC publication

The 50 top-cited papers from SPIRES in 2007


Some of the people from SPIRES (Travis Brooks and Heath O'Connell) will be contributing here somewhat regularly. In honor of the debut of this resource, we've decided to make the first release of the 2007 top cites here on symmetry breaking. We'll be posting some follow ups with other top cites lists and other interesting stuff culled from the database in the following weeks.

In this year's list there have not been many changes from last year in the top few. WMAP is still a very prominent force in the list, with other astrophysical and cosmological papers, such as the Supernova survey papers, also showing up near the top of the list. String theory and extra dimensions work also show in the top 10 with papers by Maldacena, Randall and Sundrum, Witten, and Gubser et al. The top position, as always, is reserved for the immensely useful "Review of Particle Physics" compiled by the Particle Data Group. Keep in mind that citation counts can never be exact, there is something like a 5% error in most of these numbers. Please do not fret about number 32 versus 33, as this is often not a statistically significant difference. Remember the detailed warning about the accuracy of these counts. See also the older top cite editions.

  1. 2063
    Review of Particle Physics
    By Particle Data Group
    Citations are counted for all versions of the RPP, most recent version is:
    Published in:J.Phys.G33:1-1232,2006
    [2120 Total citations in HEP]
    [30167 Total Citations to all copies of RPP in HEP]
  2. 1305
    Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) three year results: implications for cosmology
    By WMAP Collaboration
    Published in:Astrophys.J.Suppl.170:377,2007
    [2370 Total citations in HEP]
  3. 597
    The Large N limit of superconformal field theories and supergravity
    By Juan Martin Maldacena (Harvard U.).
    Published in:Adv.Theor.Math.Phys.2:231-252,1998, Int.J.Theor.Phys.38:1113-1133,1999
    [5087 Total citations in HEP]
  4. 596
    First year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) observations: Determination of cosmological parameters
    By WMAP Collaboration
    Published in:Astrophys.J.Suppl.148:175,2003
    [4624 Total citations in HEP]
  5. 506
    Measurements of Omega and Lambda from 42 high redshift supernovae
    By Supernova Cosmology Project
    Published in:Astrophys.J.517:565-586,1999
    [3677 Total citations in HEP]
  6. 497
    Maps of dust IR emission for use in estimation of reddening and CMBR foregrounds
    By David J. Schlegel (Durham U.), Douglas P. Finkbeiner, Marc Davis (UC, Berkeley).
    Published in:Astrophys.J.500:525,1998
    [3438 Total citations in HEP]
  7. 471
    Observational evidence from supernovae for an accelerating universe and a cosmological constant
    By Supernova Search Team
    Published in:Astron.J.116:1009-1038,1998
    [3520 Total citations in HEP]
  8. 416
    A Large mass hierarchy from a small extra dimension
    By Lisa Randall (Princeton U. & MIT, LNS), Raman Sundrum (Boston U.).
    Published in:Phys.Rev.Lett.83:3370-3373,1999
    [3624 Total citations in HEP]
  9. 387
    Anti-de Sitter space and holography
    By Edward Witten (Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study).
    Published in:Adv.Theor.Math.Phys.2:253-291,1998
    [3435 Total citations in HEP]
  10. 331
    Gauge theory correlators from noncritical string theory
    By S.S. Gubser, Igor R. Klebanov, Alexander M. Polyakov (Princeton U.).
    Published in:Phys.Lett.B428:105-114,1998
    [3013 Total citations in HEP]
  11. 331
    An Alternative to compactification
    By Lisa Randall (Princeton U. & MIT, LNS), Raman Sundrum (Boston U.).
    Published in:Phys.Rev.Lett.83:4690-4693,1999
    [3317 Total citations in HEP]
  12. 292
    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey: Technical Summary
    By SDSS Collaboration
    Published in:Astron.J.120:1579-1587,2000
    [1421 Total citations in HEP]
  13. 289
    Type Ia supernova discoveries at z > 1 from the Hubble Space Telescope: Evidence for past deceleration and constraints on dark energy evolution
    By Supernova Search Team
    Published in:Astrophys.J.607:665-687,2004
    [1283 Total citations in HEP]
  14. 285
    The Hierarchy problem and new dimensions at a millimeter
    By Nima Arkani-Hamed (SLAC), Savas Dimopoulos (Stanford U., Phys. Dept.), G.R. Dvali (ICTP, Trieste).
    Published in:Phys.Lett.B429:263-272,1998
    [3349 Total citations in HEP]
  15. 279
    Stellar population synthesis at the resolution of 2003
    By G. Bruzual (Merida, CIDA), Stephane Charlot (Garching, Max Planck Inst. & Paris, Inst. Astrophys.).
    Published in:Mon.Not.Roy.Astron.Soc.344:1000,2003
    [935 Total citations in HEP]
  16. 275
    The Supernova legacy survey: Measurement of omega(m), omega(lambda) and W from the first year data set
    By The SNLS Collaboration
    Published in:Astron.Astrophys.447:31-48,2006
    [558 Total citations in HEP]
  17. 262
    A Universal density profile from hierarchical clustering
    By Julio F. Navarro (Arizona U., Astron. Dept. - Steward Observ.), Carlos S. Frenk (Durham U.), Simon D.M. White (Garching, Max Planck Inst.).
    Published in:Astrophys.J.490:493-508,1997
    [1828 Total citations in HEP]
  18. 258
    First year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) observations: Preliminary maps and basic results
    By WMAP Collaboration
    Published in:Astrophys.J.Suppl.148:1,2003
    [2281 Total citations in HEP]
  19. 249
    Particle Creation by Black Holes
    By S.W. Hawking (Cambridge U.).
    Published in:Commun.Math.Phys.43:199-220,1975, Erratum-ibid.46:206-206,1976
    [2884 Total citations in HEP]
  20. 231
    Detection of the baryon acoustic peak in the large-scale correlation function of SDSS luminous red galaxies
    By SDSS Collaboration
    Published in:Astrophys.J.633:560-574,2005
    [506 Total citations in HEP]
  21. 230
    The Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS)
    By M.F. Skrutskie, R.M. Cutri, R. Stiening, M.D. Weinberg, S. Schneider, J.M. Carpenter, C. Beichman, R. Capps, T. Chester, J. Elias, J. Huchra, J. Liebert, C. Lonsdale, D.G. Monet, S. Price, P. Seitzer, T. Jarrett, J.D. Kirkpatrick, J.E. Gizis, E. Howard, T. Evans, J. Fowler, L. Fullmer, R. Hurt, R. Light, E.L. Kopan, K.A. Marsh, H.L. McCallon, R. Tam, S. Van Dyk, S. Wheelock.
    Published in:Astron.J.131:1163-1183,2006
    [368 Total citations in HEP]
  22. 226
    De Sitter vacua in string theory
    By Shamit Kachru (Stanford U., Phys. Dept. & SLAC), Renata Kallosh, Andrei Linde (Stanford U., Phys. Dept.), Sandip P. Trivedi (Tata Inst.).
    Published in:Phys.Rev.D68:046005,2003
    [987 Total citations in HEP]
  23. 225
    The Cosmological constant and dark energy
    By P.J.E. Peebles (Princeton U.), Bharat Ratra (Kansas State U.).
    Published in:Rev.Mod.Phys.75:559-606,2003
    [1008 Total citations in HEP]
  24. 223
    Dynamics of dark energy
    By Edmund J. Copeland (Nottingham U.), M. Sami (Jamia Millia Islamia), Shinji Tsujikawa (Gunma Coll. Tech.).
    Published in:Int.J.Mod.Phys.D15:1753-1936,2006
    [434 Total citations in HEP]
  25. 217
    The relationship between infrared, optical, and ultraviolet extinction
    By Jason A. Cardelli, Geoffrey C. Clayton, John S. Mathis (Washburn Observ.).
    Published in:Astrophys.J.345:245-256,1989
    [1754 Total citations in HEP]
  26. 211
    Black holes in binary systems. Observational appearance
    By N.I. Shakura (Sternberg Astron. Inst.), R.A. Sunyaev (Moscow, IPM).
    Published in:Astron.Astrophys.24:337-355,1973
    [1225 Total citations in HEP]
  27. 207
    New generation of parton distributions with uncertainties from global QCD analysis
    By J. Pumplin, D.R. Stump, J. Huston, H.L. Lai, P. Nadolsky, W.K. Tung (Michigan State U.).
    Published in:JHEP 0207:012,2002
    [1011 Total citations in HEP]
  28. 202
    New dimensions at a millimeter to a Fermi and superstrings at a TeV
    By Ignatios Antoniadis (Ecole Polytechnique), Nima Arkani-Hamed (SLAC), Savas Dimopoulos (Stanford U., Phys. Dept.), G.R. Dvali (ICTP, Trieste).
    Published in:Phys.Lett.B436:257-263,1998
    [2525 Total citations in HEP]
  29. 202
    CP Violation in the Renormalizable Theory of Weak Interaction
    By Makoto Kobayashi, Toshihide Maskawa (Kyoto U.).
    Published in:Prog.Theor.Phys.49:652-657,1973
    [5288 Total citations in HEP]
  30. 195
    Large N field theories, string theory and gravity
    By Ofer Aharony (Rutgers U., Piscataway), Steven S. Gubser (Harvard U.), Juan Martin Maldacena (Harvard U. & Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study), Hirosi Ooguri (UC, Berkeley & LBL, Berkeley), Yaron Oz (CERN).
    Published in:Phys.Rept.323:183-386,2000
    [1804 Total citations in HEP]
  31. 191
    High-energy physics event generation with PYTHIA 6.1
    By Torbjorn Sjostrand (Lund U., Dept. Theor. Phys.), Patrik Eden (Nordita), Christer Friberg, Leif Lonnblad, Gabriela Miu (Lund U., Dept. Theor. Phys.), Stephen Mrenna (UC, Davis), Emanuel Norrbin (Lund U., Dept. Theor. Phys.).
    Published in:Comput.Phys.Commun.135:238-259,2001
    [1180 Total citations in HEP]
  32. 188
    The Luminosity function and stellar evolution
    By Edwin E. Salpeter.
    Published in:Astrophys.J.121:161,1955
    [1256 Total citations in HEP]
  33. 185
    Experimental and theoretical challenges in the search for the quark gluon plasma: The STAR Collaboration's critical assessment of the evidence from RHIC collisions
    By STAR Collaboration
    Published in:Nucl.Phys.A757:102-183,2005
    [447 Total citations in HEP]
  34. 180
    Final results from the Hubble Space Telescope key project to measure the Hubble constant
    By HST Collaboration
    Published in:Astrophys.J.553:47-72,2001
    [1176 Total citations in HEP]
  35. 179
    Three-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) observations: temperature analysis
    By WMAP Collaboration
    Published in:Astrophys.J.Suppl.170:288,2007
    [356 Total citations in HEP]
  36. 179
    Cosmological Constraints from the SDSS Luminous Red Galaxies
    By SDSS Collaboration
    Published in:Phys.Rev.D74:123507,2006
    [243 Total citations in HEP]
  37. 176
    HI in the galaxy
    By John M. Dickey, Felix J. Lockman.
    Published in:

    [1222 Total citations in HEP]
  38. 174
    String theory and noncommutative geometry
    By Nathan Seiberg, Edward Witten (Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study).
    Published in:JHEP 9909:032,1999
    [2302 Total citations in HEP]
  39. 174
    The Structure of cold dark matter halos
    By Julio F. Navarro (Arizona U., Astron. Dept. - Steward Observ.), Carlos S. Frenk (Durham U.), Simon D.M. White (Garching, Max Planck Inst.).
    Published in:Astrophys.J.462:563-575,1996
    [1362 Total citations in HEP]
  40. 172
    Cosmological parameters from SDSS and WMAP
    By SDSS Collaboration
    Published in:Phys.Rev.D69:103501,2004
    [1043 Total citations in HEP]
  41. 170
    The Cosmological Constant Problem
    By Steven Weinberg (Texas U.).
    Published in:Rev.Mod.Phys.61:1-23,1989
    [1418 Total citations in HEP]
  42. 170
    Star formation in galaxies along the Hubble sequence
    By Robert C. Kennicutt, Jr. (Arizona U., Astron. Dept. - Steward Observ.).
    Published in:

    [769 Total citations in HEP]
  43. 169
    The Inflationary Universe: A Possible Solution to the Horizon and Flatness Problems
    By Alan H. Guth (SLAC).
    Published in:Phys.Rev.D23:347-356,1981
    [3016 Total citations in HEP]
  44. 168
    mu --> e gamma at a Rate of One Out of 1-Billion Muon Decays?
    By Peter Minkowski (Bern U.).
    Published in:Phys.Lett.B67:421,1977
    [505 Total citations in HEP]
  45. 167
    Three year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) observations: polarization analysis
    By WMAP Collaboration
    Published in:Astrophys.J.Suppl.170:335,2007
    [344 Total citations in HEP]
  46. 167
    4-D gravity on a brane in 5-D Minkowski space
    By G.R. Dvali, Gregory Gabadadze, Massimo Porrati (New York U.).
    Published in:Phys.Lett.B485:208-214,2000
    [747 Total citations in HEP]
  47. 166
    Neutrino Mass and Spontaneous Parity Violation
    By Rabindra N. Mohapatra (City Coll., N.Y.), Goran Senjanovic (Maryland U.).
    Published in:Phys.Rev.Lett.44:912,1980
    [1960 Total citations in HEP]
  48. 165
    Cosmological Consequences of a Rolling Homogeneous Scalar Field
    By Bharat Ratra, P.J.E. Peebles (Princeton U.).
    Published in:Phys.Rev.D37:3406,1988
    [1395 Total citations in HEP]
  49. 164
    Cosmological constant: The Weight of the vacuum
    By T. Padmanabhan (IUCAA, Pune).
    Published in:Phys.Rept.380:235-320,2003
    [711 Total citations in HEP]
  50. 159
    Unitary Symmetry and Leptonic Decays
    By N. Cabibbo (CERN).
    Published in:Phys.Rev.Lett.10:531-532,1963
    [2542 Total citations in HEP]
  51. 159
    The Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) for the Spitzer Space Telescope
    By The IRAC Collaboration
    Published in:Astrophys.J.Suppl.154:10-17,2004
    [395 Total citations in HEP]

Also note that the counts shown, and used in the rankings, are the counts as of Thursday, January 31, 2008. Further, the counts shown by the ranking are only the cites satisfying the criteria for that list. Actual citation numbers in the database may change as corrections are made and papers are added, the links will take you to the updated numbers. The lists, however, will not update.

Latest news articles

Watch the underground groundbreaking

This afternoon, watch a livestream of the start of excavation for the future home of the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment.


Stanford and University of California researchers found evidence of particles that are their own antiparticles. These 'Majorana fermions’  could one day help make quantum computers more robust.

Daily Herald

Hugh Lippincott, a Fermilab scientist, went on a Skype date while looking for dark matter. He writes that things turned out fine.


The LHCb experiment at CERN has reported the observation of a new particle containing two charm quarks and one up quark.