A joint Fermilab/SLAC publication
Illustration of a charm bracelet

Charm quark

The charm quark is a heavier cousin of the up and down quarks that make up much of the matter around us.

Illustration of the back of a dark matter milk carton "Have you seen me Neutralino"


Whereas matter on Earth and in stars is made of atoms and nuclei, scientists know that dark matter must be made of something else. Neutralinos are a prime candidate.

An illustration of particles racing around a track

Particle accelerators

Particle accelerators are used for a variety of purposes worldwide.

An illustration of a teapot letting off steam

Magnet quench

A quench occurs when a magnet in a particle accelerator loses its superconductivity.

Illustration of neutrino symbols on a scale

Neutrino masses

Neutrino masses are extremely difficult to measure. While we know precisely how much an electron weighs, we have little information on the mass of its neutral partner, the electron neutrino. The same is true of the muon neutrino and tau neutrino.

An illustration of a "machine" used to create Z bosons

Z boson

The Z boson is a neutral particle that mediates the weak force.

An illustration of tumbling dice

Rare decays

Scientists search for rare decays to test their understanding of how matter behaves.

An illustration of the sun

W boson

The W boson is a charged force-carrying particle that transmits the weak force.

An illustration depicting scale differences


The Terascale is an energy region named for the tera, or million million, electronvolts of energy needed to access it. Physicists are standing at its threshold, poised to enter this uncharted territory of the subatomic world.

An illustration representing a jet


A jet forms when a quark or gluon is produced in a high-energy particle collision.